Google Celebrates 44th Anniversary of the Arecibo Message

Forty-four years ago today, a group of scientists gathered at the Arecibo Observatory amidst the tropical forests of Puerto Rico to humankind’s first attempt at communication with intelligent life beyond our own planet. Their three-minute radio message—a series of exactly 1,679 binary digits (a multiple of two prime numbers) which could be arranged in a grid 73 rows by 23 columns—was aimed at a cluster of stars 25,000 light years away from earth.

The Arecibo message is a 1974 interstellar radio message carrying basic information about humanity and Earth sent to globular star cluster M13 in the hope that extraterrestrial intelligence might receive and decipher it. The message was broadcast into space a single time via frequency modulated radio waves at a ceremony to mark the remodeling of the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico on 16 November 1974
The message was aimed at the current location of M13 some 25,000 light years away because M13 was a large and close collection of stars that was available in the sky at the time and place of the ceremony. The message consisted of 1,679 binary digits, approximately 210 bytes, transmitted at a frequency of 2,380 MHz and modulated by shifting the frequency by 10 Hz, with a power of 450 kW. The “ones” and “zeros” were transmitted by frequency shifting at the rate of 10 bits per second. The total broadcast was less than three minutes.


This is the message with color added to highlight its separate parts. The actual binary transmission carried no color information.

The number 1,679 was chosen because it is a semiprime (the product of two prime numbers), to be arranged rectangularly as 73 rows by 23 columns. The alternative arrangement, 23 rows by 73 columns, produces an unintelligible set of characters (as do all other X/Y formats). The message forms the image shown on the right, or its inverse, when translated into graphics, characters, and spaces.

Dr. Frank Drake, then at Cornell University and creator of the Drake equation, wrote the message with help from Carl Sagan, among others. The message consists of seven parts that encode the following (from the top down):

The numbers one (1) to ten (10) (white)
The atomic numbers of the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus, which make up deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (purple)
The formulas for the sugars and bases in the nucleotides of DNA (green)
The number of nucleotides in DNA, and a graphic of the double helix structure of DNA (white & blue)
A graphic figure of a human, the dimension (physical height) of an average man, and the human population of Earth (red, blue/white, & white respectively)
A graphic of the Solar System indicating which of the planets the message is coming from (yellow)
A graphic of the Arecibo radio telescope and the dimension (the physical diameter) of the transmitting antenna dish (purple, white, & blue)
Since it will take nearly 25,000 years for the message to reach its intended destination (and an additional 25,000 years for any reply), the Arecibo message is viewed as a demonstration of human technological achievement, rather than a real attempt to enter into a conversation with extraterrestrials. In fact, the core of M13, to which the message was aimed, will no longer be in that location when the message arrives. However, as the proper motion of M13 is small, the message will still arrive near the center of the cluster. According to the Cornell News press release of November 12, 1999, the real purpose of the message was not to make contact but to demonstrate the capabilities of newly installed equipment.

Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arecibo_message
https://www.google.com/doodles/44th-anniversary-of-the-arecibo-message

HP Police Safely Rescued Stranded Trekkers at Churdhar Sanctuary, located in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh.

Chopal 12th Nov, 2018 : Chopal Police has successfully rescued 5 trekkers at Churdhar Sanctuary, located in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh. As per the information provided by Mr Santosh Sharma, DSP HP Police Chopla, atotaal of five persons, who started trekking at Churdhar on Saturday i.e. 10th Nov, 2018 from Nauhradhar Side. These person included Ravinder Gupta S/0 Ravinder Gupta, Deepak S/o Munna Prasad, Amit Kumar Yadav S/o Suneel Kumar, Neeraj Kumar S/o Jaya Shankar, Amit Dubey S/o Anil Dubey and VikasSharma S/o Deepak Sharma. Five were from Ludhian Punjab and one was from Kurukshetra Haryana. After starting from Nauhradhar side, they were able to cross Tisri, a midway halt before final climb. By then it was already dark and as they started for the final climb, amidst snow, soon they found themselves stranded, as the hill track was submerged under ice and being all first timers, they soon left the steam. Mobile were just out of charge and mobile connectivity was almost missing. Time was around past 8 PM. The Icy winds from fresh snowfall has further dampen the trekkers spirit. In such scenerio, where imminent death from freezing cold was lurking in dark, As the luck would have it, stranded, and thinking for the worst, some one from the team, tried to start the mobile with exhausted battery. And to their luck, its screen came live for a few seconds, before shutting down again. But those few seconds truned life saver for the teamas they were able to send a SOS message using Whatsup to parents of one team member at Ludhiana, Punjab. On receiving SOS message, parents alerted SSP Office, Shimla, which in turns directed Mr Santosh Sharma, DSP, Chopal to conduct a night time rescue mission at the earliest as freezing temperature at Churdhar could have been the point of no return for the stranded trekkers.

Mr Santosh Sharma, DSP Chopal, sensing the urgency, promptly arranged a rescue team of police personnel and then started the mission impossible. Through a well coordinated rescue mission, IT Cell at HP Police Head Quarter Shimla, was able to pin point the position of stranded trekkers from the SOS whatsup message from trekkers. Thanks to digital advancement, having Latitudes and Altitudes, after a grueling climb in freezing temperatur and dark, rescue team was able to reach them at 11 PM. They were all found, huddled together waiting for the worst. They were taken to Churdhar Temple and further taken to Chopal on Monday Morning, where anxious parents were waiting and were soaked with emotion on seeing the rescued trekkers..

Amidst threat of sanctions, India buys S-400 systems from Russia worth over 39,98,10,900 INR ($5 billion)

Amidst US announcement  for a possibility of imposing sanctions on India for its decision, now it is official, as Moscow and New Delhi are all set to make a deal on the purchase of S-400 anti-aircraft systems.

The Kremlin has officially confirmed that Russia and India have agreed to sign a contract for the supplies of S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems. According to Russian presidential aide Yury Ushakov, the document will be signed during Putin’s visit to India.

 Russian S-400 SAMS during Victory Day Parade 2010“The signing of the contract for the supply of S-400 Triumf anti-aircraft missile system consisting of five regiments to India will be the key aspect of the visit. The deal is worth roughly more than $5 billion,” said  Yury Ushakov Ushakov – Aide to the President of the Russian Federation responsible for international affairs in the Presidential Administration

Yuri Viktorovich Ushakov -

As per the reports from The Economic Times , India made the final decision on the purchase of S-400 complexes from Russia. This defence deal was evaluated at 39,98,10,900 INR ($5.43 billion). India will pay 15% (Rupees 59971635 INR or $0.8145 billion) of the contract amount in advance, while the balance amount will be paid subject to the  delivery terms. The first S-400 system is to be inducted by Indian Defense  within 24 months after the conclusion of the contract.

What is S-400 Triumf

The S-400 Triumf ( NATO reporting nameSA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed in the 1990s by Russia’s Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007. The S-400 uses four missiles to fill its performance envelope: the very-long-range 40N6 (400 km), the long-range 48N6 (250 km), the medium-range 9M96E2 (120 km) and the short-range 9M96E (40 km). The S-400 was described by The Economist in 2017 as “one of the best air-defence systems currently made”
The all-altitude detection radar 96L6E of S-300/400 systems

What makes India to Buy S-400 Missile Defence System?

Hindustan Times Reports : 800 students stranded in landslide-hit Himachal’s Chamba; safe in a school, say officials

Over 800 students and their teachers, who had gone to Himachal’s Chamba district to participate in a sports competition, are stranded in a remote Holi area of tribal Bharmour sub-division due to landslides.

Also stranded are around 300 people, including locals, Buddhist monks, foreign tourists and students in Lahaul and Spiti, the tribal district which has been cut-off from the rest of the state due to heavy snowfall.

Himachal Byas River Floods

On students stranded in Chamba, Prithi Pal Singh, additional district magistrate (ADM) Bharmour, said, “All the students are safe. They are lodged at Government School, Holi. The administration is making every effort to restore the road which has been blocked at three-four locations.”

He said that villagers and administrative officials are taking care of their food and other requirements.

According to the reports, 150 roads in Chamba district including many national highways have been blocked due to landslides.

Twenty-five people have died in flashfloods, landslides, roof-collapse and other incidents triggered by incessant rain in north India. Eight deaths have been reported from Himachal Pradesh, seven from J&K, six from Punjab, and four from Haryana.

35-40 IIT Roorkee students who were stranded, rescued from Lahaul-Spiti

The students from IIT Roorkee, who were stranded in Lahaul Valley as landslides triggered by incessant rain, heavy snow blocked the road links to Manali.

According to IANS reports,  as conveyed by an official over phone from Manali, “Nearly 40 students of IIT-Roorkee were taken to an Army base camp at Sissu from where they were brought to Manali via Rohtang tunnel”

A total of 249 people have been rescued so far, and  300 still stranded, reports IANS

Himachal Floods and Landslides

35-40 students of IIT-Roorkee, five residents of Kolkata and two German trekkers were among 249 persons rescued on Tuesday from the icy heights of Himachal Pradesh in a joint operation by the district administration and the Border Roads Organisation (BRO), officials said.

The Indian Air Force will start airlifting the stranded people, comprising locals and tourists, believed to be around 500 on Wednesday morning. They will be brought to Manali and Kullu towns.

They have been stranded for the past two-three days at various locations in and around district headquarters Keylong after the onset of heavy snow that hampered road links. All are safe and have been provided accommodation and eatables, officials said.

Most of the stranded people were shifted to Keylong, which is 121 km from Manali, and from there, they would be either airlifted by the IAF or brought to Manali by road on Wednesday.

As per government spokesperson “The priority in airlifting will be given to old, sick and women,”  and has advised tourists not to venture into remote areas of the state as chances of snow were still high.